Opera Medica et Physiologica

Sex- and Age-Dependent Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Glial Morphology and Function

Author Affiliations

Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

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Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS), not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. In adult CNS, both hypo- and hyper-thyroidism may affect psychological condition and potentially increase the risk of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have reported non-genomic effects of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on microglial functions and its signaling in vitro (MORI et al., 2015). Here we report the effects of hyperthyroidism on glial cells in vivo using young and old male and female mice. Immunohistochemical analyses showed glial activation are sex- and age-dependent. We also injected fluorescent-labeled amyloid β peptide (Aβ1-42) intracranially to L-thyroxine (T4)–injected hyperthyroid model mice and observed sex-dependent microglial phagocytosis in vivo as well. These results may partly explain the gender- and age-dependent differences in neurological and psychological symptoms of thyroid dysfunction.