Opera Medica et Physiologica

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Issue 1 | March 2022

Full-length research paper
Published ahead of print March 20, 2022; Printed March 21, 2022; OM&P 2022 Volume 9 Issue 1, pages 60-69; doi:10.24412/2500-2295-2022-1-60-69
Abstract Full Text

At present, it can be noted that COVID-19 is the most serious challenge to the international health care system in its recent history. Extremely high rates of morbidity and mortality dictate the need for a more detailed study of the pathogenetic aspects of the developing infectious catastrophe. Besides respiratory distress syndrome, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, COVID-19 is characterized by polyvalent disorders of the mechanisms of systemic hemostasis, which has reflected in an increase in the number of venous thromboembolic complications in the overall structure of morbidity and mortality. The given literature summarizes the information on COVID-associated coagulopathy and its effect on changes in the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of venous thromboembolic complications.


Full-length research paper
Published ahead of print March 20, 2022; Printed March 21, 2022; OM&P 2022 Volume 9 Issue 1, pages 49-59; doi:10.24412/2500-2295-2022-1-49-59
Abstract Full Text

Cisplatin, as an antineoplastic drug belonging to the platinum family, has severely nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects. L-carnitine (LC) is an antioxidant-rich natural substance. The notion that LC may play a protective function in Cisplatin-induced nephropathy and neuropathy was investigated in this study. Nephropathy was created by a single intraperitoneal injection of Cisplatin at 20 mg/kg body weight, while neuropathy was induced by daily intraperitoneal injections of Cisplatin at 2.3 mg/kg body weight over two rounds of five days, with five days break in between. The rats were subsequently given LC at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, followed by estimation of serum urea and creatinine with histological examination of renal tissue for the nephropathy group and evaluation of nerve conduction velocity for the neuropathy group. In comparison to the nephropathy group, blood urea and creatinine levels were significantly lower after treatment with LC. Furthermore, LC therapy improved the physiological characteristics of the sciatic nerve significantly. In conclusion, the significant impairment of renal function and the decrease in sciatic nerve conduction velocity induced by Cisplatin may be avoided if L-carnitine is administered as a preventative medication.


Full-length research paper
Published ahead of print March 20, 2022; Printed March 21, 2022; OM&P 2022 Volume 9 Issue 1, pages 42-48; doi:10.24412/2500-2295-2022-1-42-48
Abstract Full Text

Conditions were determined for the identification of cholesterol in erythrocyte membranes by the fluorescent method using amphotericin B as a probe. We performed a comparative analysis of electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of cholesterol, amphotericin B, and the products of their interaction, and determined the optimal wavelengths for excitation (328 nm) and recording (468 nm) of fluorescence. Amphotericin B stained cholesterol in membranes was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. It was shown that the registration of emission band at 468 nm on fluorescence spectra of free and membrane-bound cholesterol can serve as a marker of the presence of this lipid in the samples.


Full-length research paper
Published ahead of print March 20, 2022; Printed March 21, 2022; OM&P 2022 Volume 9 Issue 1, pages 31-41; doi:10.24412/2500-2295-2022-1-31-41
Abstract Full Text

The search for new molecular targets to protect brain cells from ischemic damage has remained one of the most urgent tasks of neurobiology and medicine over the past decades. The modern concept of the glucose-lactate shuttle, the main mechanism for providing energy support to neurons under conditions of increased physiological activity, implies a functional fusion of neuron and astrocyte metabolism, which becomes particularly important under energy or oxygen starvation conditions. The transfer of energy substrates in response to increased glutamate release by the presynaptic terminal occurs through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and depends on a large number of endogenous mechanisms of homeostasis. Our work examined the role of MCTs in the implementation of the neuroprotective effect of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), one of the key participants in the regulatory system capable of maintaining the viability and functional activity of neurons under conditions of energy starvation. It has been shown that the application of the MCT1 transporter inhibitor, even under normal conditions, significantly affects the parameters of spontaneous bioelectrical activity of neural networks and cell viability of primary dissociated hippocampal cultures. However, the authors’ data on the role of this type of transporters in glucose deprivation and the effect of MCT blockade on the neuroprotective effects of GDNF are of the greatest interest.


Full-length research paper
Published ahead of print March 20, 2022; Printed March 21, 2022; OM&P 2022 Volume 9 Issue 1, pages 19-30; doi:10.24412/2500-2295-2022-1-19-30
Abstract Full Text

Pseudomonas syringae is a widely distributed bacterial epiphyte of plants. When the temperature of the environment drops below zero, P. syringae can serve as biological ice nuclei due to the presence of specialized ice-nucleating proteins. This property has found application in various fields, but despite its evident importance, the molecular mechanisms behind protein-induced freezing have remained largely elusive. One of the problems in the study of the ice-nucleating process is the difficulty of carrying out experiments with freezing/melting solutions at near-zero temperatures. The experimental design implies special requirements for the equipment used and measurement technique. In this work, we used an experimental setup assembled from a dry thermostat that maintains a constant temperature and an accurate digital thermometer. We experimentally tested the possible sources of errors of the setup. As a result, we have shown that the accuracy of determining the freezing temperature of liquids and the coexistence of ice and water is mainly determined by the accuracy of the thermometer. The accuracy of determining the melting point of ice depends on the volume of the sample and is systematically underestimated in our setup. Using the proposed experimental technique, we performed a comparative study of P. syringae and E. coli cells, which revealed that P. syringae cells affect not only the freezing point of the solution but also the temperature of the coexistence of ice and water. The observed effect can be explained by the binding of P. syringae cells to the ice surface.


Full-length research paper
Published ahead of print March 20, 2022; Printed March 21, 2022; OM&P 2022 Volume 9 Issue 1, pages 13-18; doi:10.24412/2500-2295-2022-1-13-18
Abstract Full Text

In this study, we investigated the toxic properties of synthesized immunomagnetoliposomes of the following composition: phosphatidylcholine - cholesterol - disteroylphosphoethanolamine-polyethylene glycol (2000) - magnetite - antibodies to histone H3. Their dimensional characteristics were studied by the dynamic light scattering method. It was revealed that liposomal nanoparticles have dimensions of 176.4 ± 12.9 nm. Data on the toxicity of the synthesized nanoparticles in relation to human blood cells: liposomes in cells to liposomes ratio from 1/1 to 1/1000 have no toxic effect on lymphocytes; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from human blood erythrocytes has been observed in the case of cells/liposomes ratio 1/100-1/1000 after the incubation with liposomes containing sodium azide (0.03%).


Full-length research paper
Published ahead of print March 20, 2022; Printed March 21, 2022; OM&P 2022 Volume 9 Issue 1, pages 5-12; doi:10.24412/2500-2295-2022-1-5-12
Abstract Full Text

The widespread occurrence of drug-resistant urogenital mycoplasmas and the high rate of their genetic variability make it possible to consider Mycoplasma hominis as a natural reservoir of antibiotic resistance determinants. Multiple drug resistance of many bacterial types is due to the active elimination of the antibiotic from the cell through various efflux systems. The genome structure of ten clinical isolates Mycoplasma hominis was studied using next-generation sequencing. The molecular genetic characterization family MATE proteins of Russian isolates M. hominis genes using bioinformatics analysis was obtained in the first. It has been established that proteins of the transport systems (ABC-transporters) and MATE play an important role in the formation of antibiotic resistance in urogenital mycoplasmas. The activity and functioning of transport systems are associated with the presence of mutations in the genes encoding regulatory proteins. Efflux systems should be considered as promising potential targets in the creation of new generation antibacterial drugs.