Opera Medica et Physiologica

Mechanisms of Photodynamic Killing of Cancer Cells by Photodithazine

Published ahead of print March 14, 2021; Printed March 15, 2021; OM&P 2021 Volume 8 Issue 1, pages 51-61; doi:10.24412/2500-2295-2021-1-51-61

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising approach in the treatment of various tumors. The presence of three essential components: a photosensitizer, a light source and oxygen is required for generating reactive oxygen species and subsequent tumor destruction. In this study, we investigated the cell death pathway induced by Photodithazine (PD) mediated photodynamic therapy (PD-PDT). We found that PD localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of cancer cells. Upon irradiation at 20 J/cm2, PD induced death of tumor cells at concentrations exceeding 100 nM. Based on dying cell morphology, exposure of phosphatidylserine to the cell surface, presence of phosphorylated form of mixed lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase (pMLKL) and protective action of pan-caspase inhibitor and inhibitor of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), we hypothesize that Photodithazine forces cells to enter mixed-type cell death with features of apoptosis and necroptosis.