The world’s biggest killer is ischemic heart disease, responsible for 16% of the world’s total deaths. Since 2000, the largest increase in deaths has been for this disease, rising by more than 2 million to 8.9 million deaths in 2019. In recent years, many studies have shown that hydrogen has therapeutic and preventive effects in various human and animal disease models. In this study, we investigated the possible antioxidant effects of molecular hydrogen in erythrocytes and blood plasma in rats with the experimentally simulated chronic heart failure. We estimated the intensity of lipid peroxidation processes by the contents of diene and triene conjugates, Schiff bases, malonic dialdehyde, catalase activity. The results from this study suggest that inhalation of 2% molecular hydrogen leads to a decrease in pro-oxidant and an increase in antioxidant parameters. The results of this study provide the basic data for the mechanism research and application of molecular hydrogen in the future.